only about 13 percent of elementary and secondary math and science lessons are both responsive and rigorous – that is, respectful of students’ ideas while also teaching the required curriculum.
[H]igh levels of rigor cannot be attained in classrooms where teachers are unresponsive to students’ ideas or puzzlements.”
The tendency that Thompson and her colleagues observed in the secondary science classrooms they observed was that teachers either acted as the sage on the stage, dispensing science knowledge for students to memorize and regurgitate, or “elicited students’ ideas, opening up a range of possible ideas for consideration, but then narrowed the set of possible ideas to the correct science idea by the end of the class period, doing little to support subsequent sense-making.”
Why? In both cases, it was because teachers wanted to keep their classroom under reasonable control and cover the curriculum. These two concerns acted as “sink stoppers” on the flow of ideas in classrooms, say the authors, preventing the ideal balance of curriculum coverage and student participation.
The very small number of teachers who were successful in combining rigor and responsiveness did three things: (a) Responding to and building on students’ science ideas and getting them talking in whole-class and small-group settings; (b) Encouraging participation in a learning community and reinforcing classroom norms; and (c) Eliciting and incorporating students’ lived experiences to build vivid scientific stories.
The secret sauce, say the authors, is for teachers to orchestrate or seize upon teachable moments, in any part of the lesson, have students juxtapose their first-hand experiences with known scientific ideas and concepts, and talk ideas through in a supportive classroom environment.
“students authored and owned scientific explanations while carefully listening and building on the ideas of others. Both teachers and students regularly engaged in in-the-moment sense-making and focused on synthesizing knowledge. Multiple students’ ideas were framed as legitimate resources that helped the whole class make progress on canonical science understandings, even as the science was localized in students’ experiences. Scientific knowledge was treated as partial and under constant revision.
Why did so few lessons successfully balance student voice and curriculum rigor? The authors believe it’s because of the perennial difficulty of juggling four classroom dilemmas:
When there was too much of a gap between curriculum content and students’ ideas and misconceptions, teachers tended to revert to the Initiate-Respond-Evaluate pattern to keep students on track and move the lesson along.
In the most effective classrooms, teachers jotted students’ ideas on easel sheets, posted them on the wall, and were able to quickly point out connections from previous lessons.
In the best lessons, there was less concern about the number of students participating than the quality of responses and the whole class putting together a good understanding of the topic.
How to legitimately use students’ lived experience and language to shape instruction? This was the biggest challenge for teachers, with fewer than 3 percent successfully incorporating real-life stories into lessons. Most of the time, teachers borrowed language from students’ stories and incorporated it into teacher-centered explanations.
at least 90 percent of teachers were rated Effective or Highly Effective
Teachers should pose questions that push students to think clearly and hold them accountable for the quality of their thinking. “The ultimate goal,” they say, “is for these questions to become infused in the thinking of students, forming part of their inner voice, which then guides them to better and better reasoning.”
-<!--[endif]-->Clarity – Could you elaborate further? Could you give me an example?
<!-- [if !supportLists]-->-<!--[endif]-->Accuracy – How could we find out if that is true? How could we verify or test that?
<!-- [if !supportLists]-->-<!--[endif]-->Precision – Could you be more specific? Could you give me more details?
<!-- [if !supportLists]-->-<!--[endif]-->Relevance – How does that relate to the problem? How does that help us with the issue?
<!-- [if !supportLists]-->-<!--[endif]-->Depth – What factors make this a difficult problem? What are some of the difficulties we need to deal with?
<!-- [if !supportLists]-->-<!--[endif]-->Breadth – Do we need to look at this from another perspective?
<!-- [if !supportLists]-->-<!--[endif]-->Logic – Does all this make sense together? Does your first paragraph fit in with your last? Does what you say follow from the evidence?
<!-- [if !supportLists]-->-<!--[endif]-->Significance – Is this the most important problem to consider? Is this the central idea to focus on?
<!-- [if !supportLists]-->-<!--[endif]-->Fairness – Do I (you, they, etc.) have any vested interest in this issue? Am I (you, they, etc.) sympathetically representing the viewpoints of others?
Duke says the research suggests the following time-honored practices are not helpful in developing students’ reading, writing, listening, and speaking skills:
• Ineffective practice #1: Looking up words in the dictionary, writing definitions, and using them in a sentence
Giving students stickers, bracelets, or fast-food coupons for reading – These extrinsic incentives actually undermine motivation and make students less likely to choose to read
Friday spelling tests on a single word list –
Unsupported silent reading time
“To make independent reading worthy of class time, it must include instruction and coaching from the teacher on text selection and reading strategies, feedback to students on their reading, and text discussion or other post-reading response activities.”
Ineffective practice #5: Taking away recess as a punishment
Clarity of purpose – At the beginning of a curriculum unit or project, students need to see why they’re doing it, the learning goals, the criteria for success, and models of high-quality end products.
• Classroom discussion – “Teachers need to frequently step offstage and facilitate entire-class discussion,” says Alber. “This allows students to learn from each other. It’s also a great opportunity for teachers to formatively assess (through observation) how well students are grasping new content and concepts.”
• Feedback – Students need to know how they’re doing as individuals and as a class. They also need opportunities to give their teachers feedback to allow for adjustments in pedagogy and materials.
• Formative assessments – Minute-by-minute, day-by-day, and week-by-week checks for understanding are essential to students knowing how they are doing with respect to the ultimate learning goals.
• Metacognitive strategies – Students need opportunities to plan, organize, direct, and monitor their own work – and to reflect as they proceed. “When we provide students with time and space to be aware of their own knowledge and their own thinking,” says Alber, “student ownership increases. And research shows that metacognition can be taught.”
In this Edutopia article, Youki Terada (Research Curation) says that students with ADHD can concentrate better if they are allowed to fidget. But what if their fidgeting distracts other students? Here are some solutions:
<!-- [if !supportLists]-->-<!--[endif]-->Squeeze balls – Several products allow students to quietly squeeze (preferably under their desks): squishy balls, stress balls, koosh balls, and hand exercisers.
<!-- [if !supportLists]-->-<!--[endif]-->Fidgets – These are small objects that help keep students’ hands occupied; bracelets, Rubik’s Cubes, slinkies, Silly Putty, and Playdough can also do the job.
<!-- [if !supportLists]-->-<!--[endif]-->Velcro – Taping the hard-side of a Velcro strip to the underside of a desk gives students something to touch; emery boards or straws can also work.
<!-- [if !supportLists]-->-<!--[endif]-->Gum – If gum is against the rules, chewable necklaces can help students stay focused, also plastic tubing or rubber bands wrapped around the end of a pencil.
Doodling or drawing – This works for some non-ADHD students as well.
<!-- [if !supportLists]-->-<!--[endif]-->Background noise – A fan at the back of the room, or the swishing sound of water in an aquarium, can help students focus.
<!-- [if !supportLists]-->-<!--[endif]-->Music – Listening on headphones can work, as long as it doesn’t interfere with what’s happening in the classroom.
<!-- [if !supportLists]-->-<!--[endif]-->Chair leg bands – A large rubber band or yoga band tied across the front legs of a chair allows students to push or pull against it with their legs.
<!-- [if !supportLists]-->-<!--[endif]-->Exercise balls – Sitting on these can help many students focus.
<!-- [if !supportLists]-->-<!--[endif]-->Swivel, wobble, disk, or rocking chairs – Being able to twist or rock is very helpful to students with ADHD.
<!-- [if !supportLists]-->-<!--[endif]-->Standing desks – Standing up while working helps a broad spectrum of students.
<!-- [if !supportLists]-->-<!--[endif]-->Desks with built-in swinging footrests – These reduce the noise that would otherwise come from foot-tapping.
<!-- [if !supportLists]-->-<!--[endif]-->A stationary bike or small trampoline – One of these at the back of the class can provide a physical time-out for fidgety students – as well as healthy exercise.
<!-- [if !supportLists]-->-<!--[endif]-->Classroom space for moving around – An open area can allow students to stand, stretch, dance, pace, or twirl.
<!-- [if !supportLists]-->-<!--[endif]-->Flexible work locations – “Students don’t have to do their learning at their desk,” Terada says. Perching on the windowsill might be good, or being allowed to move from one learning station to another.
Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.
There are many dimensions of student achievement that we need to evaluate in PBL. The end product is certainly important, but if we focus only on that, the meaningful learning that happens throughout the process can be lost as students feel pressure to do whatever it takes to "make the grade."
In other words, we want to acknowledge not only what they learned, but how they came to learn it so that they can use these processes in the future.
Establish target goals early to provide purpose for the project, while also establishing expectations of the result:
What is the problem to solve or the product to create?
What kinds of subject area content need to be included or addressed in the project?
What expectations do you have for the final product's presentation, publishing, or performance?
What kinds of collaborative behaviors must be demonstrated by students throughout the process?
Feedback and corrections should happen frequently to keep students on track, improve their work, and set them up for success in the final product. Waiting too long to give feedback may result in work that is too far gone to be fixed or improved.
evaluations should have four dimensions:
oral and written feedback is more personal and specific.
Self-evaluation is an especially important piece of the summative evaluation because it taps into higher-level thinking and awareness of the material, process, and final product.
Peer evaluations are unique to collaborative projects, and I find that they facilitate a better collaborative process because the teacher considers the student experience. We can use this information to modify the workflow for the next project and hold students accountable for their work (effort, constructive contributions to the team, etc.).
allow for audience feedback to evaluate that project's levels of success. Public critiques (such as comments on blog posts) and class discussion help provide wider perspective and may even carry more meaning for the student than teacher feedback.
Find a combination of both public and private evaluations that you feel is right for your students or the project.
A negative comment about a problem or flaw is presented between positive comments about something done well.
"I Like That. . ."
Require feedback that includes answers to all of these statements:
I like that. . .
I wonder if. . .
Best next steps might be. . .
This critique also addresses the good (rose) and the bad (thorn), but also the potential (bud) for what may be a good idea but needs work.
Students in the deeper learning network schools scored higher on the OECD PISA-Based Test for Schools (PBTS)—which assesses core content knowledge and complex problem-solving skills—than similar students in DEEPER LEARNINGImproving Student Outcomes for College, Career, and Civic LifePAGE 7non-network high schools. Students in network schools also scored higher on state English language arts (ELA) and mathematics tests.
Despite growing workplace demands and expectations, an insufficient number of American students are graduating from high school with the content knowledge and analytical skills needed to be fully ready for postsecondary education, the workforce, and civic life in the 21st Century.
Although those born after 1980 in the United States have more education than previous generations, they have weaker skills in literacy, numeracy, and problem solving in technology-rich environments compared to international peers (Goodman, Sands, & Coley, 2015). They are also less able to apply their knowledge to new situations,
As important as it is to deepen students’ academic knowledge and skills, success in today’s world demands more. Students also need to be able to communicate their ideas to a variety of audiences, work with others to solve problems, think creatively, and manage their own learning (Autor, Levy, & Murnane, 2003; National Research Council, 2008; Carnevale & Desrochers, 2003). Deeper learning is one approach to assist students in meeting these new expectations and demands.
“Deeper learning” refers to the combination of a deeper understanding of core academic content, the ability to apply that understanding to novel problems and situations, and the development of a range of competencies, including people skills and self-management. The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation has identified deeper learning as “a set of competencies students must master in order to develop a keen understanding of academic content and apply their knowledge to problems in the classroom and on the job” (Hewlett Foundation, 2013).
the deeper learning process produces competencies that include both content mastery and the ability to apply that knowledge to answer questions and solve problems.
Students who attended the network schools in the study reported having greater opportunities to engage in deeper learning activities than students in the comparison schools.
Better academic outcomes. Students in the deeper learning network schools scored higher on the OECD PISA-Based Test for Schools (PBTS)—which assesses core content knowledge and complex problem-solving skills—than similar students in
non-network high schools. Students in network schools also scored higher on state English language arts (ELA) and mathematics tests.Stronger interpersonal and intrapersonal skills. Students in deeper learning network schools had higher self-reported levels of collaborative skills, academic engagement, motivation to learn, and self-efficacy. There were no significant differences between network and non-network students on reported creative thinking, perseverance, sense of control, or self-management.
However, students from deeper learning network schools were more likely to enroll in four-year institutions and selective institutions.
What were the bright spots of the project? Have you asked students for feedback? What will they remember most about their learning experience? What seemed hardest for them? Were they engaged all the way through? If not, can you pinpoint when and why their interest waned? Were you able to scaffold the experience so that all learners could be successful? What would you change if you were to do this project again?
What's the right line between teacher direction and student freedom? Is it OK for students to swerve toward new questions -- unanticipated by the teacher -- that grab their curiosity? How open is too open?
This formula -- the introduction of a thinking routine to stimulate observations and questions at the beginning of each new topic, the formulation of an inquiry-based investigation from those observations and questions, and the subsequent rounds of writing, critique, and rewriting -- essentially became the working formula for the rest of the school year.
consider Werberger's questions for thinking about final products: Will students love what they have created? Where will this go when it's done? Will it make the world a better or more beautiful place?
As a resource to help with your own project remodeling, think about the teaching and learning strategies you notice in the film, such as Socratic seminars, authentic deadlines, and an emphasis on public exhibitions. Do you see ideas you might want to borrow to improve your next project?
How will your next project help students learn to think more analytically and creatively to design solutions to complex problems? How might you remodel a project to help students get better at monitoring and directing their own learning?
Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.
Clements highlighted the importance of shifting teacher focus from grade level objectives to long-term trajectories, spanning from birth through career, that emphasize each step of the learning process.
fostering STEM trajectories, integrated across learning domains, can help ensure student achievement into high school, college, and beyond.
high performing systems find ways to create a long-term vision that can be sustained across political cycles, align different parts of the system — curriculum, teacher training, and assessment — so they work together rather than against each other, focus enormous attention on building front-line capacity and involve other sectors in supporting children.”
Posted from Diigo. The rest of my favorite links are here.
Our goal is to
help guide and inspire you in crafting spaces that are reflections
of everyone in your community, especially the youth who will
be benefiting from them (throughout this book, “youth” refers to
children of all ages). We hope these pages will be a catalyst for
your explorations, internet searches, and further reading.
"Moderator Jessica Parker and Bay Area maker educators discuss the role of making in their K-12 settings and how to maintain a culture of making within a formal, school-based environment. Learn how they started making with students and how they developed robust programs that foster hands-on, interdisciplinary maker projects and events which successfully support student learning. (Part one of a two-part series)"
"Moderator Jessica Parker and Bay Area maker educators discuss the role of making in their K-12 settings and how they developed their own maker educator mindset. Panelists also share how they support their colleagues in developing a maker educator mindset and highlight opportunities for maker educator professional development, including the Maker Certificate Program at Sonoma State University. (Part two of a two-part series)"
Did you know that for 65% of people in primary schools, their jobs don’t exist yet. Which makes it very hard for teachers, but exciting for young people because they can create their jobs.
Essentially the Micro:bit has an LED grid great for programming animations, buttons for gaming, a motion sensor or accelerometer, a compass, and Bluetooth connection. Plus it can connect to a Raspberry Pi or Arduino, but it’s a much lower barrier to entry than those devices. It’s open-ended, open-source, infinitely adaptable and 100% designed for kids, opening up tech making to a much wider group and teaching them what it means to program and design with technology.
Adobe Spark Page is a tool for students to create a publish pages for the web. They can add text, images, links and video and customize the format. This is perfect for publishing reports, step by step guides or newsletters.